Land Tenure systems Under British rule

Land Tenure systems Under British rule

The three major Land Tenure systems Under British rule are discussed below Zamindari System: This system of was introduced by Lord Cornwallis in 1793 in Bengal ,Bihar Made zamindars into landlords and proprietors of land Zamindars will have to pay fixed rental to the government Status of cultivators were changed to mere rent paying tenants Though fixed rent was to be paid to government, zamindars exploited the tenants by arbitrarily increasing the rent Led to increasing hold of zamindar as political allies and suppression of peasants 2.Ryotwari System: Introduced by…

Read More

Challenges to Parliamentary Democracy in India

Challenges to Parliamentary Democracy in India

The parliament is the symbol of democracy.It is a forum where national issues are discussed and settled,public grievances are ventilated ,problems of the various sections of society are articulated and the budget is passed every year.The atmosphere of this supreme deliberative forum should be solemn and dignified.But there has been a general decline in the level of debates and the conduct of members of parliament.The Challenges to Parliamentary Democracy in India is challenging the effectiveness of policy making. The business of parliament is frequently disturbed because of  frequent adjournments and…

Read More

Ecology and administration

Ecology and administration

The word ecology is derived from biology which suggests the interdependence between animal species and its natural environment.In public administration thinkers like J.M Gauss ,Robert Dahl,Riggs highlighted environmental effects on administrative structure and behaviour. What are the different perspectives of Ecology and administration? The basic premise is that public bureaucracy may be regarded as one of the several basic institutions in a society.They are continually interacting with each other.Hence knowledge of ecological dimensions can aid in scientific development of public administration.The practical importance of such a perspective lies in the insights…

Read More

Discretionary powers of President of India

Discretionary powers of President of India

What are the discretionary powers of president of India? Which articles of the constitution are related to the discretionary powers of the president? Under Art 74,president can sent the advice of the council of ministers for reconsideration.This Discretionary powers of President of India was added by the 44th amendment act. Under Art 78,the prime minister shall inform the president about the affairs of the administration of the country and the intended legislation to be passed.Thus Prime minister has a duty to inform the president. Therefore the president enjoys the right…

Read More

Eastern and Western Ghats

Eastern and Western Ghats

The Eastern and Western Ghats are the physiographic construct that demarcates interior extension of the plateau from the coastal plains.They are part of plateaus of India which is the oldest physiographic construct in the country. Western Ghats or Sahyadris : have an average elevation of 1300 m. They are developed due to tectonic subsidence of west coast plain(Excellent example of Mountain Escarpment). Spatially western Ghats extends between Tapti river and Nilgiris. This narrow ghat identifies broader profile in Maharashtra as Harishchandra and Balghat Range and in Karnataka as the extensive…

Read More

Role of Rajya Sabha

Role of Rajya Sabha

The constitution of India has assigned a unique role to the Rajya Sabha.By performing varied roles, the rajya sabha has secured a distinct place in our polity as also in the constitutional setup. Its multifaceted role of Rajya Sabha are as under: As a chamber of Continuity   The Rajya sabha is a permanent Chamber ,not subject to dissolution and one-third of its members retire every second year.The hallmark of the Rajya Sabha is the principle of continuity as a perpetual House,as a continuous institution in the parliamentary framework.A scheme of…

Read More

Suspension of fundamental rights

Suspension of fundamental rights

When can fundamental rights be suspended?Which provisions of constitution deals with suspension of fundamental rights?What is the difference between Art 358 and Art 359 of constitution ? When the national emergency is proclaimed under Art 352 on the grounds of war or external aggression,then Art 358 states that the fundamental rights given under Art 19 shall stand automatically suspended for the duration of national emergency. If national emergency is proclaimed on the ground of war ,external aggression or armed rebellion then Art 359 states that the president by a separate…

Read More

Functions of Supreme Court of India

Functions of Supreme Court of India

Supreme Court of India The constitution provides for a single and unified judiciary.The supreme court is at the helm of the judicial system in India.The supreme court exercises administrative control over all high courts ,the high court exercises control over subordinate courts.The Functions of Supreme Court of India are multifarious. The judges of subordinate courts are elected and appointed as judges of high court,the judges of high court are appointed as judges of supreme court. The judges of Supreme Court  and High courts are appointed by the president .The judges of…

Read More

Veto power of President

Veto power of President

What is Veto power of president of India?What are the different types of veto power of president? Veto Power: Meaning  Veto power is the power of the chief executive to prevent permanently or temporarily the enactment of the legislation.It is of various types. Types of veto power of president When the bill is presented to the president he has the following options, He declares that he gives his assent to the bill.Then the bill becomes an act. If the bill is not a money bill or a constitutional amendment bill,then…

Read More