In the simple term ecology may be defined as that science which studies interrelationships between abiotic and biotic components of the biosperic ecosystem on one hand and among biotic components on the other hand.The Principle of Ecology are :
1.Ecosystem is a fundamental unit of ecological study because it comprises both abiotic and biotic components.
2.Physical and biological process follow the principle of uniformitarianism.
3.All living organisms and the physical environment are mutually reactive.
4.Ecosystem functions through the input of energy mainly solar energy which is trapped by green plants and is used to prepare food through the process of photosynthesis. Solar radiation thus is the main driving force of the ecosystem.
5.The circulation of energy in the biospheric ecosystem is unidirectional.
6.Circulation of matter in the biosphere is accomplished through cyclic pathways ie through geobiochemical cycles
7.There is a positive relation between insolation and primary productivity.
8.The ecological stability is reestablished through self regulatory mechanism known as homeostatic mechanism
9.The ecosystem becomes unstable and several environmental problems are created by changes brought by external factors
10.There is a successional development of plant community in a habitat of given environmental condition
11.The transitional states of sequential changes from one vegetation community to other vegetation community are called sere, Which is complete when the succession of vegetation community after passing through different phases culminates into equilibrium condition
12.Man being an active agent of environmental change modifies the ecosystem through the exploitation of natural resources.
13.The ultimate goal of ecological study is to preserve ecological resources by maintaining the ecological diversity and ecosystem stability.
The above principle of ecology are critical for the existence of biosphere.