The three major Land Tenure systems Under British rule are discussed below
- Zamindari System:
- This system of was introduced by Lord Cornwallis in 1793 in Bengal ,Bihar
- Made zamindars into landlords and proprietors of land
- Zamindars will have to pay fixed rental to the government
- Status of cultivators were changed to mere rent paying tenants
- Though fixed rent was to be paid to government, zamindars exploited the tenants by arbitrarily increasing the rent
- Led to increasing hold of zamindar as political allies and suppression of peasants
- Introduced by Munro and Reed in 1820 in Madras presidency and later in Bombay by Elphistone
- Cultivators had to pay land revenue and were recognized as owner of land.The state collected revenue directly from the peasant
- Though peasant were recognized as owners,the land revenue fixed was exorbitant
- The government increased the land revenue at will through poor peasants into the hands of exploitative money lenders
- Introduced in Punjab ,Uttar Pradesh and parts of central India.
- Settlement was made with villages or Mahals.
- Led to emerhgence of exploitative Mahaldars who collected revenue at their whims and to favour relatives
- System is similar to Zamindari system ,however Mahaldars emerged as powerful classes who exploited peasants.