The diversity of prevailing climatic conditions, geological structure and the vegetative stand interprets the diversities of Indian soil types. Indian council of agricultural research has classified Indian soil types as:-
- Alluvial soil
- Black soil
- Red soil
- Desert soil
- Laterite soil
- Mountain soil
- Peat and Bog soil
- Saline and Alkaline soil
These Indian soil types are discussed below
Alluvial soil– Alluvial soil is one of the most important of the Indian soil types. The Alluvial soil pertaining to the featureless lowlands of the country is typical to Northern plains and the coastal plains. They are pale brown in color. Alluvial soil is a whole fertile soil. Geographically alluvial soil represents the sub catergarization as per the prevailing climatic conditions, nature of ecological structure and long profile of river.Dhayas and Bet lands are most fertile flood plain soil. Coastal delta of Utkal,Cauvery (east coast) is more fertile than west coast.
Black soil: – Black soil is also called as Chernozem or tropical black earths. Black soil forms the example of structural soil developed over basaltic table land. This black soil with its water retention capacity, clay texture, and rich mineral composition forms example of fertile soil, principally devoted to the cultivation of cotton .Earth land is majorly covered with Black soil. Black soil is enriched with calcium, potash and magnesium. Intense black soil(Maharashtra ,Kathiawar plateau),Medium black soil(Malwa plateau,Bundelkhand)Light black soil(Tamilnadu,Chotanagpur) are locations of this type of soil.
Red Soil: – Red soil is the significant structural soil of the peninsular region developed over the archean base. Red soil is rich in Iron content. Because of its high iron content, it is red in color. Red soil is found where there is less rainfall and potash and magnesium is absent .Red soil are used for wide variety of crop cultivation in distinctive locations. It’s the textural benefit that makes this soil identified with one crop wonder profile. Red soil can be found in Tamil Nadu, north-eastern Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Odisha.
Desert Soil –This Indian soil types is identified in the state of Rajasthan bounding the Great Indian Desert. Most desert soils are also known as Aridisols or dry soil. It is coarse textured mineral rich soil. It lacks in availability of humus. The desert soil has got a sandy texture and has low clay content in it. The phosphate content is high in desert soil. This soil has been mobilized for cultivation of coarse grain and pulses in the Indira Gandhi canal region.
Laterite soils– Laterite soils are structurally similar to red soil as it is also developed over the archean base.It is distinguished from red soil as it relates to par moist climatic conditions This Laterite soil is formed only where there is heavy rainfall and under low temperature areas. The Laterite soil has fewer amounts of lime and magnesia. Wide area of India is covered with Laterite soil.Sahyadiris,Southern hills,meghalayan region etc are locations of this type of soil.It is used for plantation agriculture like rubber,spices,coffee etc.
Mountain soils– The Mountain soils represent the category of the soil related to Northern mountain wall. It is humus rich well drained soil with limiting factor being depth.This soil is found in Mountains, valleys and hill slopes of the Himalayas. Mountain soils are dark brown in color. Areas of Assam, Darjeeling, Himachal Pradesh, and Kashmir are rich with Mountain soil. North western Himalayan montanne soil is more fertile compared to purvanchal as per effectivity of laterisation.
Peat Bog soil- It marks its limited availability in the regions of littoral vegetation as along sunderbans, chilka lake,kottayam ernakulam belt of vembanad lake.Terai and Chos in the foot hills of shivalik also have peat bog soil as per the moist monsoonal deciduous stand.
Saline and Alkaline soils-Mainly confined to Marshy Rann of Kutch in Gujarat. However with increase in unsustainable agricultural practices the area under saline alkaline soil has spread to transgangetic lowlands as well. Saline and Alkaline soils are mainly seen in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.