Scope of e governance models:
The activities falling under e-government can be broadly identified under three distinct areas. The common goals of these three e governance models are to achieve efficiency, reliability, and quality of services for the respective areas. These include Government-to-government (G to G) ,government-to-citizens (G to C),and government to business (G to B).
Government-to-government (G to G): The government to government (G to G) e governance model represents the backbone of e-government. It is important for the governments at the union, state and local level to enhance and update their own internal systems and procedures by introducing e-government systems before extending it to citizens and business. Government to government e-government involves sharing data and conducting electronic exchanges between various governmental agencies. The various procedures with in a governmental organization can be made efficient, effective and economical by creating applications or content management systems. There are a number of advantages with government-to-government initiatives. The cost savings accrued which is achieved by increasing the speed of the transactions, reduction in the number of personnel necessary to complete a task thus creating a flat organisation, and improving the consistency of outcomes are immense. It also ensures better management of public resources.
Government to citizen (G to C):This e governance model facilitates citizen interaction with government. The primary role and goal of any government is to serve the citizens of their country. Thus efficiency effectiveness and economy of this service could be enhanced by introducing e-government systems. Several areas of interaction between citizen and government such as payment of taxes, renewing licenses and applying for benefit schemes will consume less time and better delivery with e – govenment. Government to citizen initiatives also enhances access to public information through the use of websites and kiosks. Many states have come up with “single window” initiatives where citizens can avail services involving multiple government departments. This will reduce interaction of citizens directly with the government and in turn reduces the chances of corruption and other malpractices. Thus, the G to C initiatives aims to achieve the goal of “better government and better governance”.
Government to Business (G to B) The interaction between government and business occurs at various levels like procurement & sale and other clearance mechanisms for investments etc .Modern day business prefers to carry out its activities such as sales, procurement, and hiring through electronic means like e- procurement, e-tendering etc. Today companies use the benefits of Software products to streamline their operations and they like to extend the cost savings realized through Business to Business (B to B) transactions to their business with union, state and local level governments. Also governments across the world are looking for ways to reduce the procurement costs and realization of better rates for their sales proceeds. The G to B e governance model provides an ideal way out to achieve this. Developing countries, which are under great pressure from the public in this era of information, encourages G to B operations.