Over a third of the world population is governed by states having some forms of federal character.The central feature of a federation is the sharing of sovereignty between centre and the states involved.
Indian federation resembles closely to canadian federation in its formation in terms of its preference to “Union” ,centralising character.The constitution of India declares India as a union of states .But Union is not the result of an agreement between states to form a federation.
The Indian federation is interpreted by scholars in different aspects.K.C Wheare opines it as a unitary state with subsidiary federal principles where as Ivor Jennings is of the view that India has a federation with strong centralising tendency.
The federal features of Indian constitution are
- Dual polity
- written constitution
- Division of Powers
- Supremacy of constitution
- Rigid constitution
- Independent Judiciary
Besides the above federal features Indian constitution also possess non federal features as well.
The non federal features of Indian federation are :
A strong federal government ,single constitution for centre and states ,single citizenship for the entire country.When emergency provisions are in operation the it functions more as a unitary state than federal.The states are not indestructible under Indian constitution.The All India Services,Integrated Judiciary,Integrated election Machinery and unequal representation of states in Rajya Sabha are some other provisions which makes the Indian state less federal.